Guidelines for authors
Requirements for the manuscripts and their formalization
Use the instructional template to format your article according to Proceedings of the NJF Congress requirements.
Length of the manuscript – 8 or more A4 format pages.
The manuscripts have to be prepared by Microsoft Word, font – Times New Roman.
Page setup: top and bottom, left and right margins – 2.0 cm;
The text is written in single line spacing, aligned Justify, using an automatic transfer words (hyphenate), 1st line of paragraph indented – 1,27 cm.
Manuscript’s parts titles (introduction, titles of chapters and conclusion) – 14pt Bold must be numbered and aligned to the left edge of the page and separated from the text by single line interval.
Sections of the manuscript:
- information under the title;
- literature cited;
- information about the author(s).
The title (CAPITAL letters, centered – 14 pt Bold)
- the title should be short (a maximum of 10 words);
- it should reflect the results of the research, i.e. the research objective rather than the research process;
- in the title, avoid using words such as “analysis”, “research”, “survey”, “problems”, etc.;
- acknowledgements, where the authors thank institutions that have extended financial support, may appear as a footnote to the title.
Information under the title
Information under the title includes:
- the name(s) of the author(s) in English – 12 pt Bold;
- the job and scientific titles, institutional affiliations, address, telephone No, and email address of the first (coordinating) author – 12 pt Italic;
- the job and scientific titles, institutional affiliations, and email address of the other author(s).
Abstract (approximately 100 words) (12 pt Normal)
The abstract shall summarise:
- the relevance and the problem of the research;
- the purpose;
- the research methods;
- the main results (in brief);
- the keywords (5–7, arranged in alphabetical order);
- JEL codes (one letter followed by two numbers) (see http://www.aeaweb.org/jel/jel_class_system.php)
Introduction (14 pt Normal)
The introduction shall state:
- the problem that was investigated. It is essential to mention all the scientists who work in this field and their specific contribution to the analysed problem;
- why the problem is of interest;
- a hypothesis or a scientific problem;
- the purpose or, if necessary, objectives of the paper;
- the object and subject of the research;
- the research methods;
- the benefits of the research to studies, science and / or business.
- The purpose should be clearly defined and be in line with the title and the conclusons of the paper.
- The puspose must reflect the result of the research, rather than the research process.
- Quite often authors arrive at a faulty formulation of the purpose when they use such words as "investigate", "analyse", "assess" or even "examine", "describe", etc. Such words would be more appropriate to describe the objectives.
- The purpose should be worded as follows: "To conduct investigation / analysis of ... and to suggest (to make, produce, frame, prove, etc.) ....."
Research object / subject
- The object indicates the field of the research, namely, a business, enterprise, infrastructure subject, etc.
- The subject indicates the qualities or features of the object that will be researched, e. g. management, motivation, finance, price of goods, etc.
- E. g., the research object is the competitiveness of a company. The research subject includes competitiveness indicators (the sizes and specialisation of companies, payment, assessment, financial indicators, etc.).
The Methods section should specify:
- the time period of the research;
- information about experts;
- calculation of the sample ;
- number of respondents;
- data assessment methods;
- other information related to methods used in the research
- Research techniques can be described at the end of the Methods section.
- In the Methods section, it is inappropriate to list methods suitable for any research, e. g., “...used scientific literature analysis, graphical, monographic, logical extraction, comparison, induction, deduction, etc. methods...”.
- The research methods should not be called methodology as the latter means the theories and principles of the scientific cognition process, the scientific cognition philosophy and system. The Methods section can describe the methodological principles the research relied on.
Research results and discussion (14 pt Normal)
- The main objective of this section is to present the findings of the scientific research and to justify their novelty.
- This section shall include:
1. the results and their explanation/interpretation,
2. or severally: results (as briefly as possible) and explanation / interpretation of the results.
- Standard scheme of result presentation:
- analysis of a theoretical problem and its generalisation;
- the obtained research data and comment thereon;
- prospects of the phenomenon or recommendations how to change the situation.
- Titles of tables and figures - 14 ptNormal.
- Text within the tables and figures and formulas - 12 ptNormal.
- The text in the tables aligned to left, the figures should be centred.
- The tables and figures must be informative and self-explanatory, i.e. understandable without referring to the text, accompanied by explanatory captions.
- The data in a table or figure cannot be duplicated in the text or explanatory caption, i.e. data shall be provided either in a table/figure or the verbal description, where they are cited but not repeated. The caption shall only focus on regularities proceeding from the tables and figures.
- It is recommended not to include:
figures and tables by other authors;
figures with only 2–3 indicators;
too many tables and figures.
- The number of tables and figures should be limited (an article is a scientific paper and not a collection of statistical data).
- The figures may not be multicoloured or scanned.
- One graph should not contain more than 2–3 curves.
- All figures and tables should presented as follows:
F 1) the text preceding a figure / table explains why the figure / table is necessary (i. e., what research fact it will illustrate); a reference to the figure/table must be provided in brackets;
F 2) if there are more than one figure / table, they shall be numbered;
F 3) explanatory captions to figures / tables: "Subsequent to the analysis of the data in the figure / table... ", or "data in the figure / table reveal ...".
- Where a figure / table is by somebody else than the author of the article, the reference to the source, just like all the references in the text, shall be given next to its title (not UNDER the figure / table).
- Where the author used a source to produce a figure/table, before it is described in the text, the specific source shall be indicated and specific changes made by the author shall be detailed.
- Where a figure/table is made by the author(s) based on their research data, it is not relevant to specify "made by the author(s)".
Conclusions (14 pt Normal)
- be consistent with the purpose of the article;
- reflect the result of each research objective;
- be specific (preferably include numbers);
- include recommendations for science, business and / or studies...
The conclusions shall not:
- state the facts ("increased", "decreased", etc.);
- contain a set of general conclusions.: they should describe revealed regularities, facts, numbers, and new ideas;
- avoid unnecessary sentences of the general character (e. g., "The conducted research and the processed results lead to a conclusion that...");
- retell the gist of the article (like in the summary).
Format for citing references
- In the text, the name of the author shall be accompanied by the initial, e.g., according to J. Krikščiūnas (1933), ...
- It is not advisable to include the titles of the authors (prof., scientist, etc).
The journal uses the Harvard System of Referencing.
- (Knox, 2011; Milkis, 2012) (submitted the last name ONLY);
- if there is no author, the first word of the title is indicated (Management..., 2013);
- if the first word of the title repeats in several sources on the list of literature citations, the text shall contain two or three, as the case may be, first words of the title (Lithuanian agricultural..., 2011);
- where a quotation is cited, the page of the source shall be specified (Viduklis, 1996, p. 48);
Literature cited (12 pt Normal)
- The references in Literature cited shall be arranged in alphabetic order.
- In the list should be at least 10 sources.
- Sources in Cyrillic shall be transliterated. You can use the translit converter http://translit.cc
- All internet sources must be interactive.
- All literature sources cited in the article must be included in the Literature cited section.
- Sources that were not used in the text may not be included in the Literature cited.
cite more publications included in the international databases;
avoid citing textbooks and learning or teaching materials;
use the English title of our journal.
Examples of Literature cited format
- Jakubavičius, A., Strazdas, R., Gečas, K. (2003). Inovacijos. Procesai, valdymo modeliai, galimybės. –Vilnius: Lietuvos inovacijų centras. 97 p.
Article in a journal
- Baležentis, T., Kriščiukaitienė, I.(2012). Application of the Bootstrapped DEA for the Analysis of Lithuanian Family Farm Efficiency // Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development. Vol. 34. No. 5: 35–46.
(Titles of the journals must be written in italics).
- Hume, D. A. Treatise of human nature: Being An Attempt Introduce the method of reasoning intro moral subjects. – http://socserv2.socsci./~econ/ugcm/3113/hume/t.html [2012 05 01]. (The date it was viewed apperas in square brackets).
Summary (12 pt Normal)
- If the article is written in Lithuanian, the summary shall be in English.
- If the article is written in English, the summary shall be in Lithuanian.
- The summary shall include the title of the article, name(s) and institutional affiliations of the author(s), text, keywords, and JEL codes.
- The summary, just as the abstract, shall contain several sentences that give information about the relevance, objectives, methodology, and the key results of the research (avoid extended comments).
- The summary should be consice (about 100 words).
Information about the author (in English only) (12 pt Normal)
SOKIENE Vanda. Dr, Klaipėda University, Minijos g. 155, 93185, Klaipėda, Lithuania. E-mail: Vanda.Sokiene@gmail.com